Hanze y’U Rwanda

Ubuhakanyi buri gufata indi ntera, Hari ubwo imyemerere ishingiye ku madini izashira ku isi ?

Ubuhakanyi buri gufata indi ntera, Hari ubwo imyemerere ishingiye ku madini izashira ku isi ?

Umubare w’abantu biyongera uko bwije n’uko bukeye ndetse bagera ku mamiliyoni ku isi bavuga ko batemera ukubaho k’ubuzima nyuma y’urupfu; ko ubuzima burangira iyo umuntu apfuye, kandi ko nta Mana ibaho ndetse ko n’umugambi w’ijuru ari baringa.

Iyi myemerere kandi igenda izamuka buhoro nubwo idashyigikiwe cyane. Mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe, ubuhakanyi bwamaze gufata indi ntera ugereranyije no mu myaka yashize.

“Mu bigaragara, hari umubare munini w’abahakanyi uyu munsi kurusha abigeze kubaho mu mateka y’ikiremwamuntu.” Aya ni amagambo ya Phil Zuckerman, Umwalimu w’Ubumenyamuntu muri Kaminuza ya Claremont yo muri Leta ya California muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika akaba n’Umwanditsi w’igitabo cyitwa ‘Living the Secular Life’.

Nkuko ubushakashatsi bwa Gallup International bwakorewe ku bantu basaga 50.000 mu bihugu 57, bubyerekana, umubare w’abantu bavuga ko bafite amadini basengeramo waragabanutse uva kuri 77% ugera kuri 68% hagati y’umwaka wa 2005 n’uwa 2011 mu gihe uw’abibona nk’abatemera Imana (atheists) wazamutseho 3% bizamura imibare y’abatizera ku isi bikayigeza kuri 13%.

Nubwo abatemera Imana (abahakanyi) atari bo benshi ku isi ugereranije n’abayemera, ese ibi byaba ari ikimenyetso cy’ibishobora kuzaba mu minsi iri imbere? Ese ukurikije uko abahakanyi bagenda biyongera ku isi, umuntu yavuga ko hari umunsi imyizerere ishingiye ku madini izashiraho burundu?

Nkuko BBC ibivuga mu nkuru yayo icukumbuye yahaye umutwe ugira uti “Will religion ever disappear?’’, ntibyoroshye kumenya ibizaba mu bihe bizaza ariko umuntu asesenguye amateka y’idini n’impamvu ryagiye rikura, impamvu abantu bamwe bahisemo kuryizereramo, abandi bakabireka byadufasha kumva neza uko ibyerekeye imyizerere nyobokamana izaba imeze mu binyejana by’ahazaza.
Abashakashatsi bamaze iminsi bagerageza gutohoza impamvu zituma umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa igihugu muri rusange gihindura imyumvire kikagana mu buhakanyi ariko hari bike bigaragara byahurijweho.

Kimwe mu bituma amadini agira abayoboke ni uko atanga umutekano n’ibyiringiro by’ubuzima bw’isi itazwi neza niba ibaho. Mu buryo budatunguranye cyane, ibihugu usangamo imibare y’abahakanyi iri hejuru ni bimwe usanga binafite abaturage bateye imbere mu by’ubukungu, babayeho neza kandi hari ubwisanzure n’urubuga rwa politiki.

Umwanditsi Zuckerman twavuze haruguru avuga ko “Umutekano n’imibereho y’abaturage mu gihugu iki n’iki bisa n’aho bigabanya imyemerere ishingiye ku madini. Zuckerman kandi avuga ko iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga n’uburezi bigenda bituma umubare w’abemera amadini ugabanuka mu bantu.

Ukwizera mu bantu kuragenda kugabanuka

Ubuyapani, Ubwami bw’Ubwongereza, Koreya y’Epfo, Ubuholande, Repubulika ya Czech, Estonia, Ubudage, Ubufaransa na Uruguay (ahari umubare munini w’abaturage bafite inkomoko mu Burayi) ni ibihugu mu kinyejana cyahise cyangwa mbere y’aho gato, imyizerere ishingiye ku iyobokamana nyamara ubu bikaba ari bimwe mu bihugu bifite imibare iri hasi cyane y’abizera Imana ku isi. Ibi bihugu bizwiho kuba bifite uburezi bwateye imbere, bifite abaturage babayeho neza, ikigero cy’ubusumbane kiri hasi kandi birakize.

“Muri make” nkuko Quentin Atkinson, Umwalimu muri Kaminuzaya Auckland yomuri Nouvelle Zelande, abivuga, “abantu muri ibyo bihugu nta bwoba bwinshi bafite bw’ibibi bishobora kubabaho.”

Icyakora ukugabanuka kw’abemeramana si ibya hamwe kuko bigenda byototera n’ibihugu bigifite abaturage bakomeye ku myemerere ishingiye ku idini nka Brazil, Jamaica na Ireland.

Zuckerman avuga ko “Ibihugu bike cyane ubu ari byo bifite abemera Imana benshi kurusha uko byari bimeze mu myaka 40 cyangwa 50 ishize. Igihugu cyonyine cyagumanye imibare iri hejuru kuri iyi ngingo ni Iran [Igihugu kigendera ku mahame ya kiyisilamu] ariko biragoye kubyemeza kuko abatemera Imana muri icyo gihugu bashobora kuba bahisha imyemerere yabo.”

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ni ikindi gihugu giteye imbere mu by’ubukungu nyamara gifite imibare iri hejuru y’abafite ukwizera gushingiye ku madini icyakora ubushakashatsi bwa vuba aha bwakozwe na Pew bwagaragaje ko imibare y’abatemera Imana yazamutse ikava kuri 1.6% ikagera kuri 2.4% muri icyo gihugu.
Ara Norenzayan, Umwalimu muri Kaminuza ya British Columbia iri i Vancouver muri Canada akaba n’umwanditsi w’igitabo ‘Big Gods’, avuga ko kugabanuka kw’abafite imyizerere ishingiye ku madini bitavuze ukuvaho kwayo kuko umutekano n’imibereho myiza ishobora gutera bamwe kureka iyi myizerere atari ibintu bihoraho cyangwa se ngo bibe byaramba iteka.

Agira ati " Mu gihe gito, ibintu byose bishobora guhinduka, umushoferi wasinze akica umukunzi we, umutingito ukaba usenye umujyi wose, umuganga ubaga agakora ikosa rituma umurwayi amupfira mu maboko n’ibindi bintu by’amanzaganya."

Norenzayan avuga ko uko imihindagurikire y’ibihe izagenda iteza ibibazo mu myaka iri imbere ndetse umutungo kamere ukagenda ugabanuka, imibabaro n’ibizazane bishobora kuzatuma abantu barushaho kwizera Imana.

Ati " Abantu baba bashaka guhunga akababaro ariko iyo nta kuntu bagasohokamo, nibura baba bashaka kumenya impamvu yako. Ku bw’impamvu imwe imwe cyangwa indi, amadini asa n’aho asobanura impamvu y’akababaro kurusha uko iyindi mitekerereze y’ubuhakanyi butemera Imana yabisobanura."

Ibi byigaragariza cyane mu byumba byo mu bitaro n’ahantu hazahajwe n’ibiza ku isi.

Urugero mu 2011, umutingito ukomeye wibasiye agace ka Christchurch, ho muri Nouvelle Zelande kiganjemo abatemera Imana. Ibi byatumye bamwe mu bagezweho n’iki kiza bahindura imyumvire noneho bayoboka imyemerere ishingiye ku idini, icyakora abandi bo ahubwo bagumye ku yabo yo kutemera Imana cyane ndetse bayikomeraho kurusha mbere y’aho.

Nubwo muri Nouvelle Zelande ikiza cyakururiye abantu mu myemerere ishingiye ku idini si ko byagenze mu Buyapani kuko imibare y’abari bafite imyizerere ishingiye ku madini yagabanutse cyane nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi. Gusa nkuko Zuckerman abivuga, abantu benshi bashobora kwitwara nkuko ab’i Christchurch babigenje kuko ‘Iyaba guhura n’ikintu gikomeye byateraga abantu bose kuba abahakanyi, twese twakabaye turi abahakanyi ubu.”

Ikiremwamuntu dufite imana mu mitwe no muri kamere yacu

Nubwo ibibazo by’isi byajya bikemuka mu buryo bw’igitangaza ndetse abantu twese tukabaho mu mahoro, nta cyabuza amadini gukomeza kubaho. Impamvu ni uko bisa n’aho mu bwonko bwacu harimo akobo kari mu ishusho y’imana bitewe n’uko twagiye dutera imbere.

Ibi kugira ngo tubyumve neza, birasaba ko tubanza kumva icyitwa ‘Dual process theory’, ni nk’ihame ry’imikorere y’amaharakubiri. Iri hame ry’imitekerereze rivuga ko dufite imimerere ibiri y’ibanze y’imitekerereze ari yo System 1 na System 2 . Systeme (imikorere) ya 2 ntabwo imaze iminsi myinshi igaragaye. Ni ijwi rituba mu mitwe ridufasha guteganya ejo hazaza no gutekereza neza (kandi uvugira muri iryo jwi ntajya aceceka).

Systeme 1 ku rundi ruhande yo itubamo, ni karemano, ntituyigenga kandi irikoresha. Ubu ni ubushobozi umuntu akurana na bwo hatitawe ku ho yavukiye. Ni uburyo budufasha kubaho. Iyi sisiteme (imikorere) ni yo itubashisha kwanga inyama iboze, ikadufasha kandi kwiga no kuvuga ururimi kavukire tutabanje kurutekerezaho ndetse ni yo iha impinja ubushobozi bwo gutandukanya ababyeyi babo n’abandi bantu ndetse no gutandukanya ibinyabuzima n’ibindi bintu bitabufite. Iyi system idufasha gusobanukirwa neza isi no kubonera ubusobanuro ibintu biza tutabyiteze nk’ibiza kamere cyangwa urupfu rw’abo dukunda.

Uretse kudufasha kunyura mu magorwa y’isi no kubona abo tubana, bamwe mu bahanga batekereza ko System 1 yashoboje amadini gutera imbere no gusakara mu isi.

Urugero, System 1 ituma twumva mu buryo tutatekerejeho imbaraga z’ibindi binyabuzima zaba zihari cyangwa zidahari. Mu myaka ibihumbi ishize, ubu bushobozi bwatubashishaga kutagwa mu byago nk’intare ziryamye mu mashyamba cyangwa inzoka z’ubumara zihishe mu bihuru. Gusa na none ubu bushobozi bwatumye twumva ko haba hari ibindi bintu bitagaragara byaba bibaho byaba imana y’inyampuhwe itureberera cyangwa umukurambere wenda utatwishimiye waduteje amapfa aduhana cyangwa ikigashanyi cyihishe mu gicucucucu.

Na none System 1 ituma tugira imbaraga zo kubona ibintu mu buryo bubiri, bisobanura ko bidutera ikibazo gutekereza roho n’umubiri nk’ikintu kimwe. Ibi biza hakiri kare: abana bato hatitawe ku mico y’aho bavukiye bose bizera ko bafite roho idapfa, ko ndetse hari ahandi babaye mbere yo kuvuka kandi ko bazakomeza kubaho. Ibi hari uburyo amadini menshi abisobanura ariko mu buryo mu buryo bw’ubuhanga.

Justin Barrett, Umwanditsi w’igitabo ‘Born Believers’ yaravuze ati “Umwalimu wigisha iby’imitekerereze wo muri Scandinavia utizera Imana yambwiye ko umukobwa we w’imyaka itatu aherutse kumutungura ubwo yavugaga ati ‘Imana ibera hose buri gihe.’ We n’umugore we ntibashoboye gutahura aho uwo mwana yakuye ibyo bintu . Kuri uyu mwana w’umukobwa, imana ni umukecuru, urabyumva ko aho yabikuye atari mu rusengero rw’abaporoso.”

Ku bw’izi mpamvu zose, abashakashatsi benshi bizera ko idini n’imyemerere irishingiyeho ‘yakomotse ku mitekerereze yacu kamere’ nkuko Robert McCauley, Umwalimu muri Kaminuza ya Emory y’i Atlanta muri Leta ya Georgia, USA, akaba n’umwanditsi w’igitabo cyitwa ‘Why Religion Is Natural and Science Is Not’ abivuga.
Ati “Amadini ni uburyo bushingiye ku muco bwo kwirwanaho bwadutse kugira ngo budufashe kumva neza ubushobozi karemano buri mu bantu.”

Imico abantu bamenyereye bitoroshye ko bareka

Abatemera Imana bagomba kurwanya iyo myumvire ishingiye ku muco w’abantu. Abantu muri kamere zabo bifuza kwizera ko baherereye cyangwa bakomoka ku kintu gikomeye, ko ubuzima atari ikintu kiri aho kidafite akamaro. Imitwe yacu ikenera intego n’ubusobanuro. Nkuko Porofeseri Norenzayan abivuga, “Binyuze mu burezi, ubumenyi (science) no gutekereza ugashungura, abantu bari bakwiye kureka kugendera ku byo bibwira gusa ariko nyine ibyo bibwira biriho bisanze ari uko bameze.”

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, siyansi, uburyo bumwe abahakanyi ndetse n’abatemera bifashisha kugira ngo bumve neza isi n’imiterere yayo, ntabwo ari uburyo buryo bupfa kwinjira vuba byoroshye mu mitekerereze ya muntu. Siyansi icyo ikora ni ugukusanya no gushyira hamwe ibitumvikana neza byo muri system 1 ivugwa haruguru nkuko McCauley abivuga. Tugomba kwemera ko isi izenguruka nubwo ubwacu tutumva cyangwa ngo tubone uko izenguruka n’amaso yacu cyangwa ibindi bice by’umubiri. Tugomba kwemera igitekerezo cy’uko isi izenguruka kabone nubwo twaba twiyumvisha mu mitwe yacu ko ibyo atari ukuri.

Biradukomerera kwemera ko ibyo twizera byaba atari byo cyangwa se kurwanya mu mitwe yacu ibyo twibwira ngo twemera ukuri kwagaragajwe habanje gukorwa ubushakashatsi bufatiye ku bipimo n’imibare ari na byo siyansi igenderaho.
McCauley avuga ko ‘Siyansi atari ibintu abantu bivanira mu mitwe yabo mu buryo karemano, irakomeye nyamara iby’amadini byo si ngombwa ko tunafata umwanya ngo tubyige kuko ni ibintu dusanzwe tuzi.”

Aha, Barrett yongeraho ko ‘ibitekerezo bishingiye ku idini ari intambwe ari ibintu bigoye kurwanya.” Ati “Ugomba kubanza kugira icyo uhindura mu kiremwamuntu kugira ngo urwanye idini mu bantu. Ibi bihamywa n’uko 20% by’Abanyamerika bavuga ko nta dini babarizwamo, 68% muri bo bavuga ko bemera Imana ndetse 37% bakaba bavuga ko bayoborwa n’umwuka [wera]. Nubwo bavuga ko nta dini iri n’iri babarizwamo, bemera ko hari imbaraga cyangwa ikindi kinyabuzima kitagaragara kiyobora ndetse kikagenga isi n’imikorere yayo.

Mu buryo busa n’ubu, hari abantu ku isi benshi bavuga bashize amanga ko batemera imana nyamara bakaba bemera ububasha bw’ibiremwa bifite imbaraga zirenze iza muntu harimo nk’imizimu, ububasha bw’inyenyeri n’izuba, karma, ubushobozi bwo kumenya icyo abandi batekereza (telepathy) ndetse n’icyitwa reincarnation [iby’uko umuntu iyo apfuye azukira ahandi hantu akazavuka nk’uruhinja ruto agakomeza kubaho).

Norenzayan avuga ko ‘muri Scandinavia, abantu benshi batemera Imana nyamara imyizerere y’uko habaho ibinyabuzima n’imbaraga zirenze iza muntu iraganje kurusha uko wabyibwira.” Ikindi kandi, abatizera usanga hari ibintu biyeguriye ku buryo busa n’ubwo abantu biyeguriramo amadini, aha ni nk’amakipe y’imikino bafana, yoga, ibigo by’akazi bakorera, ibidukikije kamere n’ibindi ku buryo usanga ari byo bigenga indangagaciro zabo mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi. Ikimenyetso gihamya ibi ni uko kuri ubu ubupfumu bugenda bukwira muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ndetse ubupagani (kwemera imana nyinshi) bukaba ari ryo dini rigenda rigira abayoboke benshi kurusha andi uko bwije n’uko bukeye mu bihugu bigize Ubwami bw’Ubwongereza.

Umubano mu bantu, kimwe mu byo amadini yateje imbere

Ikrenzeho ni uko amadini atuma imibanire n’imikoranire y’abantu yiyongera igatera imbere. Ubwoba buva ku myumvire y’uko hariho Imana (cyangwa imana) ishobora byose ireba buri muntu ushaka kuva mu murongo abandi bagenderaho yatumye habaho ukubahiriza amategeko mu miryango migari ya kera. Atkinson avuga ko ‘iyi ari imyumvire ivuga ko habaho ibihano bituruka ku kinyabuzima gifite ingufu ziruta kure iza muntu’. Yongeraho ko ‘niba buri wese yizera ko ibyo bihano koko bibaho, ibi bishobora gutuma habaho gahunda mu matsinda y’abantu.”

Ikindi kandi, umutekano muke n’imibabaro y’abantu bishobora kugira uruhare rwabyo hano kuko bituma amategeko akakaye y’imyitwarire ashyirwaho n’amadini yubahirizwa. Mu bushakashatsi buherutse gukorwa na Joseph Bulbia afatanije na bagenzi be bo muri Kaminuza ya Victoria y’i Wellington muri Nouvelle Zelande, byagaragaye ko uduce dusanzwe tugira ikirere kibi cyangwa se dukunda guhura n’ibiza kamere, abadutuye usanga bakunda kubaha no kubahiriza imana. Impamvu ni iyihe? Ni uko abaturanyi bashobora gutanga ubusobanuro ku itandukaniro riri hagati y’ubuzima n’urupfu. Ibi rero byatumye idini riba ikintu abaturage muri rusange babona nk’ingenzi.

Indi mpamvu yatumye amadini ashinga imizi mu batuye isi ishingiye ku mibare yoroshye. Mu mico itandukanye y’abatuye isi, abantu bafite imyizerere ishingiye ku idini bisa n’aho bagira abana benshi kurusha abatagira iyo myizerere. Nkuko Norenzayan abivuga, Hari ikimenyetso gikomeye gihamya ibi.” Ati “No mu bantu bafite imyizerere ishingiye ku madini usanga abakomeye cyane ku myizerere yabo bagira ubushobozi bwo kurumbuka cyane kurusha abagendera ku bitekerezo bishya bizanwa na siyansi. Wongeyeho ko abana bakunda gukurikiza ababyeyi babo ku byerekeye ingingo yo kwemera amadini bamaze kuba bakuru cyangwa bakabireka, isi ibamo abantu batizera Imana isa n’aho itazabaho.

Gukomera ku myemerere

Ushingiye ku mpamvu zose zavuzwe haruguru zirimo izishingiye ku mitekerereze, iz’imikorere y’ubwonko, izishingiye ku mateka, iz’umuco ndetse n’iz’imibereho mu by’ubutunzi, abahanga bavuga ko ntaho amadini cyangwa imyizerere iyashingiyeho izajya. Amadini nubwo yaba akomeza kubaho bitewe n’ubwoba cyangwa urukundo rw’abayabamo, afite ibanga n’ubushobozi bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru bwo gukomeza kubaho. Bitabaye ibyo, ntiyakabaye akiriho muri twe.

Nubwo abantu twareka kwizera imana nk’uko tuzibwirwa n’idini ya gikirisitu, iya kiyisilamu n’iy’Abahindu cyangwa andi yose, ibinyabuzima by’imbaraga cyangwa kwizera iby’umwuka bizakomeza biganze. Amadini mashya agenda abaho yakomeza kuba nk’ikiza kamere. McCaukey avuga ko ‘Leta y’igihugu idashingiye ku idini idashobora kukurinda icyo ari cyo cyose. Igihe cyose twakwisanga duhanganye n’ikiza giturutse mu nda y’isi, intambara ishingiye ku icura ry’ibisasu kirimbuzi cyangwa impanuka ziturutse ku izuba, aha ni ho imana zahita ziza.

Phil Zuckerman atanga igisa n’umwanzuro agira ati “Abantu bakeneye kumva batekanye bari kure y’akababaro n’imihangayiko kandi benshi bagomba gutekereza ko hari ikindi kintu kirenze kibaho nyuma y’ubu buzima ndetse ko bakundwa n’ikinyabuzima kitaboneka. Iteka ryose hazakomeza kubaho abantu bafite ukwizera gushingiye ku iyobokamana kandi sinatangazwa n’uko bazakomeza kuba ari bo benshi ku isi.”

IRADUKUNDA Fidèle Samson

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