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Icyo Siyansi Ivuga ku Bantu Bagera Hafi yo Gupfa Bakazuka (Igice cya 1)

Icyo Siyansi Ivuga ku Bantu Bagera Hafi yo Gupfa Bakazuka (Igice cya 1)

Icyo Siyansi Ivuga ku Bantu Bagera Hafi yo Gupfa Bakazuka (Igice cya 1)
Nta gihe kirekire gishize abahanga mu bumenyi (science) batangiye guha agaciro inkuru z’abantu bavuga ko bapfuye cyangwa bageze mu yindi si itari iyi tubamo nyuma bakagaruka (bakazuka) nubwo muri Afurika bene izi nkuru zimaze igihe kirekire zibarwa cyane.

Heaven Is for Real [Ijuru Ririho Koko] ni filimi yasohotse mu mwaka wa 2014 ivuga ku mwana w’umuhungu wabwiye ababyeyi be ko yari yageze mu ijuru ubwo yarimo abagwa n’abaganga. Iyi filimi yinjije akayabo k’asaga miliyoni 91 z’amadolari ya Amerika muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika honyine. Igitabo iyi filimi yari ishingiyeho cyasohotse mu 2010 cyari cyaragushijwe amakopi miliyoni 10 ndetse kimara ibyumweru 206 ku rutonde rw’ibitabo biba biri kugurwa cyane muri Amerika ku rutonde rwa New York Times (New York best-seller list).

Ibitabo bibiri biheruka gusohoka harimo kimwe cyitwa Proof of Heaven [Igihamya cy’Ijuru]- cyanditswe na Dr. Eben Alexander wanditse ku buhamya bwe ku byo yabonye ubwo ‘yasatiraga’ urupfu mu gihe yamaraga icyumweru cyose muri ‘coma’ yatewe n’indwara yo mu bwonko ya ‘meningitis’ cyamaze ibyumweru 94 kuri uru rutonde rwa New York Times best seller, mu gihe icyitwa ‘To Heaven and Back’ [Kujya mu Ijuru Ukagaruka] cyanditswe na Mary C. Neal na we ‘wegereye nyamunsi’ nyuma yo kurohama mu mugezi ku bw’impanuka yakoze ari kwishimisha mu mazi cyo cyamaze kuri urutonde ibyumweru 36.

Icyakora igitangaje (sinzi uko wabyita) ni uko cya gitabo cyo mu 2010 kivuga ku ‘Umuhungu wagiye mu Ijuru Akagaruka’ byaje kumenyekana ko inkuru ikivugwamo ari impimbano yose, ikaba ari ibintu by’ibipapirano biri ahongaho nkuko nyir’iyo nkuru aherutse kubyitangariza.

Nkuko ikinyamakuru The Atlantic,dukesha iyi nkuru iri ku rubuga rwayo rwa interineti ifite umutwe ugira uti “The Science of Near-Death Experiences”, kibivuga, inkuru zivugwa muri filimi n’ibitabo tuvuze haruguru zisa cyane n’izavuzwe mu myaka itari myinshi cyane ishize ziri mu magana y’ibitabo ndetse no mu biganiro (interviews) abanyamakuru bagiranye n’abantu bavuga ko babonye urupfu n’amaso yabo ntirubatware. Bene aba bazwi mu cyongereza nka Near-Death Experiencers ‘NDErs’ cyangwa ‘experiencers’ [inararubonye cyangwa inararusimbutse nkuko njye nagerageje kubita mu Kinyarwanda…]

Nubwo usanga ibivugwa muri bene izo nkuru bihinduka bitewe n’imico y’ibihugu abazibara bakomokamo, uburyo zibarwamo n’ibyinshi mu bizivugwamo birasa. Inkuru nk’izi mu bihugu byo mu burengerazuba bw’isi ni zo zikorwaho ubushakashatsi cyane.

Nyinshi muri izi nkuru zivuga ku muntu wiyumva cyangwa wibona areremba hejuru y’amazi akabona ari ahantu hatari muri ubu buzima buzima busanzwe mbese yiyambuye cyangwa yambuwe uyu mubiri usanzwe; aho amara igihe ahantu heza, mu yindi si, agahura n’ibiremwa by’umwuka (bamwe bita abamalayika) ndetse ari ahantu heza hitwa na bamwe ko haba Imana [mu ijuru]; agahura n’inshuti n’abavandimwe amaze igihe kirekire yarabuze, benshi bapfuye, ndetse agatangira kwibuka ibintu bimwe bikomeye byamubayeho, akiyumva ari ahantu yegereye ingufu zishingiye ku iremwa ndetse ari ahanu hari urukundo rwuzuye noneho nyuma y’aho mu buryo atazi atanashaka, akongera agahamagarwa avanwa muri ubwo bususuruke akagarurwa mu mubiri we.

Izi ‘nararubonye’ zivuga ko ibyazibayeho bitari nk’inzozi cyangwa iyerekwa, inzozi z’umuruho zisanzwe ahubwo nkuko babivuga biba ari ‘ibintu bya nyabyo ndetse nyabyo kurusha ubuzima busanzwe nyabwo.

Nyuma yo kubona ibi, abenshi muri izi nararubonye bisa n’aho bibagora kuba bikwiye mu buzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi. Bamwe ndetse bareka imirimo yabo yari ibatunze cyangwa bagatandukana n’abo bashakanye. Mbese akenshi bagira uko babona ubuzima bitandukanye n’uko babubonaga mbere.

Mu bihe bitandukanye bitari kera, inkuru zishingiye ku bushakashatsi bw’ubumenyi (science) zigerageza gusobanura ‘Ubunarubonye’ nk’ikintu giterwa n’impinduka ziba mu bwonko bwajagaraye cyangwa buri gupfa na zo zariyongereye.

Zimwe mu mpamvu zivugwa harimo ubuke bw’umwuka duhumeka wa Oxygen, ikinya umuntu aterwa kikagenda nabi cyangwa ubwivumbure bw’umubiri ku binyabutabire byo mu bwonko ku guhungabana cyangwa guhahamuka (trauma).
Inararubonye nyinshi zihakana zivuye inyuma ndetse zikarwanya bikomeye ibi bisobanuro zivuga ko ari ibinyoma byambaye ubusa buriburi. Ibintu bitera ubu bunararubonye, inararubonye zo zivuga ko ari ibintu byinshi kandi bitandukanye ku buryo atari ibintu byo gusobanura nkuko basobanura andi mahame [nko kuvuga ngo malariya iterwa n’umubu w’ingore].

Ibitabo biheruka gusohoka kuri iyi ngingo byanditswe na Sam Parnia and Pin van Lommel, bombi b’abahanga mu bugenge, bisobanura byimbitse ubushakashatsi buto buto- buri mu tunyamakuru twanabanje kugenzurwa n’abahanga bagenzi babo- bugerageza gusobanura ibiba mu ‘bunararubonye’ hifashishijwe uburyo bw’ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku bifatika bishobora no kongera kugenzurwa n’abandi bahanga baminuje.

Uyu muhanga mu bugenge Sam Parnia ndetse na bagenzi be batangaje ibyavuye mu bushakashatsi nk’ubwo buheruka bwabajijwemo abarwayi b’umutima barenga 2000 mu kwezi k’Ukwakira mu 2015. Ibitabo biheruka twavuze haruguru bya Mary Neal na Eben Alexander bavuga ubunararubonye bwabo bwatumye ababara bene izi nkuru bazanyemo ibyo mu mwuka [bidafite ibimenyetso bifatika bishingiyeho] zigira agaciro kiyongereyeho. Mary Neal mbere y’uko agera aho umuntu ‘apfa akazuka’ yari umuyobozi w’ishami ryigisha kubaga uruti rw’umugongo muri Kaminuza ya Southern Carolina (ubu yikorera ku giti cye) mu gihe Eben Alexander ari umuganga ubaga abarwaye indwara zo mu bwonko wigishije ndetse akanakora mu bitaro byinshi kandi bikomeye ndetse akanigisha mu mashuri yubashywe yigisha ubuganga harimo irya Brigham na Kaminuza ya Harvard.

Uyu Alexander ni we mu by’ukuri wazamuye ibyo kuvuga izi nkuru hifashishijwe ubushakashatsi. Yifashishije ubuhanga yari asanzwe afite mu buvuzi n’ubunararibonye yari asanganywe, yageze ku mwanzuro ko yari muri ‘coma’ mu gihe yari yasatiriye urupfu ndetse ko ubwonko bwe bwari bwahagaze burundu, maze avuga ko gusobanura uko yiyumvise n’ibyo yabonye muri make ari roho ye yavanywe mu mubiri we igakora urugendo ijya mu yindi si ndetse ko abamalayika, Imana ndetse n’ubuzima bubaho nyuma y’ubu byose ari ibintu biriho nk’uko n’ibindi tuzi biriho.

Alexander uyu ntiyigeze atangaza iby’ubu bushakashatsi mu tunyamakuru tugenzurwa ngo tunemezwe n’abahanga bagenzi be mu kanyamakuru k’ubushakashatsi ako ari ko kose, ndetse inkuru imwe icukumbuye yasohotse mu 2013 mu kinyamakuru Esquire yanenze ndetse igaragaraza ukudasobanukirwa neza byinshi mu biri mu bushakashatsi bwe. Kimwe mu byo banenga cyane ni icy’uko we ubwe yivugira ko ibyo avuga byabaye igihe ubwonko bwe nta cyo bwashoboraga gukora. Ku bemerababonye, inkuru ya Alexander ndetse no kwisubiraho mu magambo k’Umuhungu Wagiye mu Ijuru Akagaruka byose ni ibindi bimenyetso bigaragaza ukuri guke ku bivugwa n’ishimutwa ry’abantu rikorwa n’ibimanuka (aliens), imbaraga z’umwuka zitagaragara, ukubaho kw’abazimu no kutabaho kw’ibintu bitabaho byemerwa n’injii zisa.

Icyakora aba bemerababonye ntibakunda gushinja inararubonye ibyo guhimba inkuru zabo akantu ku kandi. Nubwo izi nkuru zaba impimbano z’ibipapirano, ndetse ugukabirizwa kwazo kukava ku buryo zibarwamo, ziragwiriye cyane ku buryo bitazorohera abemerababonye kuzihakanira hamwe zose uko zingana zigata agaciro.

Biragoye cyane kwirengagiza ibintu bivugwa n’abahanga mu bugenge basanzwe bubashywe ndetse bakoze ahantu ubundi hagatumye birinda kuvuga ibintu byatesha agaciro amashuri bize, amazina bubatse n’ubunararibonye bw’ubunyamuwuga basanzwe bafite. Nubwo ubuzima nyuma y’ubu tubamo bwaba butabaho, ibyiyumvo byo kuba hari ababubayemo biriho cyane.

Hari ikintu ku nararubonye gituma mu buryo bw’ubuhanga bwa siyansi basa n’abumvikana kandi ibyo bavuga bigatera amatsiko bikomeye. Nubwo ushobora kutemera cyangwa ngo ushingire ku ishimutwa ry’umuntu rikozwe n’ikimanuka (alien), cyangwa ko runaka yasuwe n’ikiremwa cy’umwuka mu iyerekwa igihe ufite ibikoresho bifata amakuru mu ntoki zawe, ubunararubonye bwinshi bubaho igihe umuntu aba akikijwe n’ibikoresho byakorewe kugenzura no gupima ikintu icyo ari cyo cyose ubwenge bwa muntu bushobora kugenzura no gupima ku mubiri w’umuntu.

Inkuru y’urugendo rw’intwari y’inararubonye iba iryoshye kuko ivuga ibyo kuva ku isi ukajya aheza kurushaho

Ikirenzeho, uko ikoranabuhanga mu buvuzi rikomeza gutera imbere, ni ko ubushobozi bufasha abahanga gukura umuntu mu nzara z’urupfu na bwo bwiyongera. Hari umubare, nubwo atari munini, w’abantu bagize amahirwe yo gukira cyangwa bakenda gukira neza nyuma yo kumara amasaha badahumeka n’umutima udatera cyangwa bari munsi y’urubura cyangwa barohamye hasi cyane mu mazi magari akonje cyane. Ibi abaganga babikora rimwe na rimwe batabipanze bagakonjesha imibiri y’abarwayi cyangwa bagahagarika imitima yabo bagira ngo bagire ibikorwa by’ubuvuzi ‘operations’ bikomeye kandi bishobora gushyira akadomo ku buzima bw’abo barwayi; mu gihe kitari kera, abaganga batangiye kugeragereza uburyo nk’ubwo ku bahungabanyijwe n’impanuka zikomeye, bakabashyira hagati y’ubuzima n’urupfu kugeza igihe ibikomere byabo byomorewe.

Ibi byose bigira Ubunararubonye ikintu kibaho mu mwuka gusa dufite amahirwe yo kugenzura mu buryo twifashishije siyansi. Ubunararubonye buhinduka nk’imodoka idufasha gutembera mu myumvire y’abantu imaze igihe kirekire ivuga ko tutari inyama n’amagufwa masa. Ubu bunararubonye kandi butubera nk’indebakure tureberamo imikorere ya roho zacu- rimwe mu mayobera akomeye mu kubaho kwa muntu yewe no kuri ba bandi bakomeye cyane ku myumvire ihakana ukubaho kwa roho n’ikindi gice kitugize kitagaragara.

`Umwanditsi w’iyi nkuru, avuga ko mu mpeshyi y’umwaka wa 2015, yisanze ku Mucanga w’i California mu nama ngarukamwaka y’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga ku Bushakashatsi bwerekeye ubumenyi ku gihe ubuzima bw’umuntu buba bwasatiriye cyane urupfu (Near-Death Studies), umuryango wabayeho byemewe n’amategeko guhera mu 1981.

Uyu mwanditsi ati “Icyo nashakaga kumenya ni iki: Ni iki gituma mu by’ukuri umuntu yizera ko mu by’ukuri yabonye urundi ruhande [rw’ubuzima]? Kuki urwo ruhande rumwe rw’umuntu ruba rusa n’iz’abandi benshi? Kandi se, hari uburyo muri siyansi bwo kubona ‘ikijya mbere’ muri ibi bintu?”

Iyi nama, nkuko umwanditsi abivuga, yari nziza biteye ubwuzu kuyitabira mbese byasaga n’aho ari urungano rwiganye mu yisumbuye rwahuye; abenshi mu bari bayitabiriye bari abantu bamaze imyaka myinshi baziranye. Bari bambaye amaburuteri y’amabara atandukanye harimo abagombaga gutanga ibiganiro, abakorerabushake ndetse n’inararubonye zizwi.

Ikiganiro gifungura cyatanzwe na Perezida w’uyu Muryango, Diane Corcoran cyari kigenewe abashya batazi byinshi cyangwa na bike ku bunararubonye.

Diane Corcoran yatangiye avuga ku bintu bitandukanye inararubonye nyinshi zibanza gucamo nko gutungurwa k’umutima, kurohama mu mazi ukamira cyane biguheza umwuka, gukubitwa n’amashanyarazi, uburwayi budakira n’umunaniro ukabije, ni uko akomeza avuga ku bimenyetso bigaragara by’ubunararubonye.

Aganiriza abari aho, Corcoran yakomoje kuri Bruce Greyson, umwe mu batangiye gukora ubushakashatsi ku bunararubonye babishyizeho umutima koko akaba ari na we wavuze ko igihe cy’ubunararubonye kirangwa no kwiyumvamo ibyishimo bidasanzwe, guhura n’ibiremwa by’umwuka, ndetse no kwiyumva wavanywe muri uyu mubiri.

Icyakora, Corcocan yashimangiye ko ingaruka z’igihe kirekire z’ubunararubonye ari ikimenyetso kigaragaza niba koko warabubayemo koko.

Abantu benshi, nkuko yabivuze, ntibamenya ko baba baragize ubunararubonye, kugeza igihe biboneye ingaruka zabyo. Zimwe muri zo harimo kugira ibyiyumvo bidasanzwe ku bintu nk’urumuri n’ibintu bimwe na bimwe by’ibinyabutabire; kwita no kugirira impuhwe kurushaho ufuditse, kudashobora kumenya neza gukoresha igihe n’amafaranga, kumva ukunze uwo ari we wese ntacyo biturutseho bishobora kutishimirwa na zimwe mu nshuti n’abavandimwe bawe no kumva hari ibyiyumvo bidasanzwe ku bikoresho bikoreshwa n’amashanyarazi. Ati “Uramutse ushyize inararubonye 400 hamwe mu ihoteli imwe maze sisiteme ya mudasobwa igahagarara, aho hantu haba akantu.”

Corcocan mu gihe yavugaga yari yambaye ‘badges’ ebyiri, imwe iriho izina rye mu gihe indi yariho izina ry’umukoroneri (colonel) wahoze ari umuforomo muri Army Nurse Corps. Uyu colonel w’umugore yagize ubunararubonye bwa mbere igihe yari akiri mu ishuri ry’abaforomo, akaba yarakoze i Long Binh, ibirindiro binini by’ingabo za Leta Zunze za Amerika muri Vietnam mu mwaka wa 1969.

Corcoran yagize ati “Nta muntu wavugaga ku bunararubonye. Umusore umwe yambwiye ku bunararubonye yagize gusa sinumvaga rwose ibyo yavugaga gusa nabonaga akomeje kandi amarangamutima yamurenze.”
Kuva icyo gihe, Corcocan yatangiye kugerageza gushaka uburyo ubunararubonye bwakwigwaho biruseho hakoreshejwe siyansi.

Ati “Mbere ya byose, urupfu no gupfa ukwabyo si ikintu abaganga benshi bitaho cyane. Rero iyo utangiye kuvuga ikintu kizamo ibintu byo kuva mu mubiri warangiza ukabona ndetse ukumva ibintu, uba uri kujya kure y’ibyicaro byabo.”

Vuba aha, uyu Diane Corcocan yagerageje, bimukomereye, kubona abahoze ari abasirikari mu ntambara zo muri Iraq na Afghanistan bifuzaga kuvuga ku bushake bwabo ubunararubonye baba baragize.

Ati " Iteka ryose nizeraga ntashidikanya ko ikibazo cy’ubunararubonye gifite aho gihurira n’ubuvuzi. Mpora mbwira abaganga kubyitegura mu mitwe yabo ubwabo, gusa hari abarwayi benshi babaye mu muri ibi bintu, kandi igihe cyose ugiye kubitaho, uba ugomba kuba ufite aya makuru."

Inyandiko zivuga ku bunararubonye cyangwa ibintu byumvikana nka bwo si iza vuba aha; kuko iza mbere cyane zanditswe mu ‘Bihe byo Hagati’ (Middle Ages), mu gihe hari n’abanditsi bavuga ko ari izo hambere y’aho cyane. Ikinyamakuru Resuscitation cyandika ku buvuzi giheruka gutangaza ubushakashatsi busobanura uko ubararubonye bwafatwaga mu gihe cya kera kurusha ibindi nkuko byanditswe n’umusirikare w’umuganga w’Umufaransa wabayeho mu kinyejana cya 18.

Icyakora, ubushakashatsi bugezweho ku bunararubonye bivugwa ko bwatangiye gukorwa mu mwaka wa 1975. Uyu ni wo mwaka Raymond A. Moody, umu-philosophe [umuhanga mu gutekereza] waje guhinduka umuganga w’indwara zo mu mutwe yasohoye igitabo cyitwa Life After Life [Ubuzima Nyuba y’Ubuzima], igitabo yanditse nyuma y’ibiganiro yagiranye n’inararubonye zigera kuri 50.

Igitabo cya Moody, cyatumye abanyeshuri benshi basozaga kaminuza bandika ibitabo kuri iyi ngingo, gikurura impaka mu biganiro byo kuri televiziyo ndetse ibinyamakuru bifata amakaramu, si ukwandika byiva inyuma kuri iyi ngingo. Uhereye ubwo, habayeho umuryango w’abaganga b’indwara zo mu mutwe, abajyanama ku bibazo by’indwara zo mu mutwe, abavura indwara z’imitima ndetse n’izindi nzobere z’abaganga.

Kimwe na Moody, aba bose bemera ko hari igice cy’umuntu kitagaragara wakwita roho gishobora kuba kibaho kidafatika cyangwa ngo kibe cyarebeshwa amaso, cyigenga ariko gifite ukuntu gikorana cyangwa gifite aho gihurira n’ubwonko ndetse kandi ko inararubonye zishobora kuba zagitangira ibimenyetso. Abenshi mu bikomerezwa bari mu basangiye iyi myumvire bagiye bafite impamyabumenyi kandi bakoze muri za kaminuza ndetse n’ibitaro byubashywe. Usanga aba bose barata ndetse bakarangira buri wese igitabo buri wese muri bo yanditse kuri iyi ngingo ivuga ku kubaho k’umwuka (spirituality) ndetse na kamere ya roho.

Kimwe mu bitabo barangira uwo ari we wese ushaka kumenya iby’ubunararubonye ndetse no kubaho kwa roho ni icyitwa The Handbook of Near-Death Experiences: Thirty Years of Investigation, kikaba ikusanyirizo ry’ubushakashatsi, cyasohotse mu mwaka wa 2009.

Nkuko ibikubiye muri iki gitabo bibigaragaza, mu mwaka wa 2005, ubushakashatsi bwakorewe ku bantu basaga 3500 bavuga ko bagize ubunararubonye, hakaba hari ubushakashatsi bwo muri za kaminuza bugera kuri 600 bwifashishije ibyo bavuze. Inkuru nyinshi zivuga ku byo batangaje ziri mu ‘Kanyamakuru k’Ubushakashatsi ku Bunararubonye’ [Journal of Near-Death Studies], akanyamakuru uyu muryango w’inzobere wishimira cyane ukanaterwa ishema na ko kuko kabanje kugenzurwa no kwemezwa n’izindi nzobere. Ubundi bushakashatsi bwinshi ubusanga mu bundi bwinshi bwakozwe n’inzobere mu buvuzi.

Nyuma yo gukora ubushakatsi arebeye ku bwari ku rubuga rwa PubMed, urubuga rwibanda ku makuru n’ubushakashatsi ku buvuzi butangazwa na National Library of Medicine, umwanditsi w’iyi nkuru yasanze nibura kuri uru rubuga hari ibitabo bigera kuri 240 bivuga nibura gato ku bunararubonye.

Bamwe ntibemera uburyo amakuru atangwa n’Inararubonye abonekamo

Ubushakashatsi bwinshi bwakozwe ku bunararubonye bwifashishije uburyo bwo kubaza (surveying) aho abashakashatsi bashakaga abantu bahuye n’ikibazo nk’iki, bababona, bakababaza. Ibi bisa n’aho biteye inkeke mu buryo bw’ubuhanga bwa ‘science’. Ibi ni uko abavugishije abashakashatsi ari abantu babaga babyihitiyemo ku bushake ku buryo ibyo bavuga hari uburyo bishobora kunengwamo.

Urugero ni uko inararubonye zabonye ibintu biteye ubwoba cyane mu bunararubonye bwazo zishobora kuba zitaragize umwete wo kuvuga inkuru zazo mu gihe izabonye ibyiza mu bunararubonye bwazo zo zishimiraga ndetse ziakanaterwa ishema cyane no kubivuga.

Kimwe mu byo abahakana ubunararubonye bashingiraho bavuga ko batemera ko ubunararubonye ari igihe umuntu abona mu bisa n’inzozi, iyerekwa cyangwa ibonekerwa umuntu agira abona ubwonko bwe buri gupfa ni uko inkuru z’inararubonye hafi ya zose ziba zisa, nyamara mu gihe usanga ubushakashatsi bumwe kuri iyi ngingo bugaragaza ko ibyo inararubonye zibona biba ari byiza na none inkuru zivuga ibibi zingana na 23% gusa mu bushakashatsi bwose bwakozwe.

Aba bavuga ko nta mubare munini w’abantu wita ku biva muri ubu bushakashatsi [bw’ababonye ibibi] ndetse ko usanga bitanagurwa cyane. Bavuga ko usanga inararubonye zaravuze ibyazibayeho nyuma y’imyaka myinshi bibaye bishoboka ko n’ubushobozi bwazo bwo kwibuka buba bwaragabanutse. Ikindi kandi ko ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku ibazwa (retrospective studies) atari uburyo bwiza umuntu yashingiraho ngo avuge ko yabona amakuru yizewe ku kintu mu by’ukuri cyarimo kiba ku mibiri ndetse n’ubwonko bw’inararubonye mu gihe bo bumvaga roho zabo zibereye ahandi hantu.

IRADUKUNDA Fidele Samson

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