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Covid-19: Menya itandukaniro riri hagati y’ikizamini cya PCR n’icya Rapid test

Covid-19: Menya itandukaniro riri hagati y’ikizamini cya PCR n’icya Rapid test

Gukwirakwira kw’ubwoko bushya bwa coronavirus bwandura cyane bwa Omicron kwateje kwiyongera cyane kw’umubare w’abantu bashya banduye Covid-19 babonetse mu bice bitandukanye byo ku isi.

Ariko, ni iki umuntu ugaragaza ibimenyetso bya Covid ashobora gukora - ibimenyetso nko guhinda umuriro, inkorora, umunaniro, gutakaza ubushobozi bwo kumva icyanga cyangwa guhumurirwa no kunukirwa, ububabare no gucibwamo - kugira ngo amenye niba arwaye iyi ndwara? Ni ibihe bizamini bikorwa?

Muri iyi nkuru, turasobanura ibizamini bikunze gukorwa ndetse n’ibyiza n’ibibi bya buri kizamini.

RT-PCR : Ikigero kiri hejuru cyo kwizerwa kw’igisubizo, ariko igisubizo kiratinda
Ni ikizamini ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku buzima (OMS/WHO) rifata nk’"intangarugero". Mu magambo arambuye y’Icyongereza, RT-PCR bivuze ’Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction’.

Mu ngiro, iki kizamini gitanga ibisubizo bya mbere byizewe cyane kandi gituma hamenyekana niba umuntu yaranduye Covid-19 cyangwa niba nta yo yanduye.

Iki kizamini gikorwa hifashishijwe akantu kameze nk’agati kariho ipamba, muganga akagakuba mu gisenge cy’akanwa ahagana inyuma cyangwa mu zuru, kugira ngo afate amatembabuzi y’uwo arimo gusuzuma. Iki kizamini gituma hashobora gutahurwa uturemangingo ndangasano twa coronavirus.

Ibyumba byo gusuzuma (laboratoires) muri rusange bitanga inama ko icyo kizamini gikwiye gufatwa hagati y’umunsi wa gatatu n’umunsi wa karindwi nyuma yo kugaragaza ibimenyetso.

Ikizamini cya RT-PCR gitahura uturemangingo twa virusi, tuzwi ku mpine y’Icyongereza ya RNA (ribonucleic acid), kandi iyo ngano y’igihe ihuye n’igihe cyo kwandura ubwo iyo virusi iba yigaragaza cyane kandi byoroshye cyane kubona mu gice cyo mu nkanka agakoko gatera Covid-19.

Ariko, rimwe na rimwe, muganga ashobora gukora iki kizamini guhera ku munsi wa mbere - yemwe no ku munsi wa cumi - wo kugaragaza ibimenyetso.

Nubwo ibisubizo by’iki kizamini biba byizewe ku kigero cyo hejuru cyane, iki kizamini gifite n’ibibi byacyo bimwe na bimwe: kirahenda cyane kandi bishobora gufata umunsi kugira ngo ibisubizo biboneke.

Wilson Shcolnik, umuhanga mu bumenyi bw’ibitera indwara akaba anakuriye akanama k’ubuyobozi mu ishyirahamwe rya Brazil ry’ubuvuzi bwo gusuzuma indwara, rizwi nka ABRAMED, agira ati: "Ikindi, RT-PCR ni uburyo busaba abanyamwuga bafite ubushobozi bwo hejuru cyane hamwe n’ibikoresho by’urusobe cyane, bitoroshye kuboneka muri za ’laboratoires’ zose".

Tukiri mu bijyanye n’ibizamini byo gupima uturemangingo, ’laboratoires’ zimwe n’amaguriro y’imiti (farumasi) na byo bikoresha uburyo bwo gupima bwa PCR-Lamp. Na bwo bufasha gusuzuma virusi mu macandwe, ariko igisubizo butanga ntigifatwa nk’igisobanutse neza ugereranyije n’igitangwa n’ikizamini cya RT-PCR.

Bwana Shcolnik ati: "[PCR] Lamp ishobora kuba ubundi buryo bwo gukoresha mu gihe RT-PCR idahari".

Ubundi buryo bwa PCR, bwamamaye kurushaho mu gihe cya vuba aha gishize kubera icyorezo cy’ibicurane cya H3N2, bwitwa Viral Panel.

Ibi bizamini bifite ubushobozi bwo gusesengura no gutandukanya niba umuntu yaranduye coronavirus, ibicurane bya influenza, na virusi yo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero izwi nka ’respiratory syncytial virus’, itera ibicurane bisanzwe. Ibyo ni bimwe mu bitera indwara bishobora gutahurwa n’ibyo bizamini bya PCR.

Ibizamini Antigen: Ibisubizo ntibyizewe cyane, ariko birahendutse
Ibi bizamini, binazwi ku izina rya ’rapid test’ kubera ko ibisubizo byabyo biboneka vuba. Ibigo by’ubuvuzi n’inzobere mu buvuzi bavuga ko ubu buryo bwo gusuzuma "atari ubwo kwizerwa cyane".

Mu yandi magambo, ibyo bivuze ko ibisubizo bitanzwe n’ibi bizamini ari ibyo kwizerwa gacye ugereranyije n’ibisubizo byatanzwe n’ibizamini bya RT-PCR.

Ikigero cyo kwibeshya ko umuntu atanduye Covid kandi nyamara yarayanduye (ibizwi nka ’false negative’ cyangwa ’faux négatif’), kiri hejuru ho gato mu bizamini bya antigen.

Mu gushakira umuti iki kibazo cyo kutiringirwa (kutizerwa), imbuga nyinshi za internet hamwe n’ibigo bigira abantu inama yo gukoresha ikizamini antigen mu gihe cy’iminsi myinshi ikurikiranye (rimwe na rimwe mu gihe cy’icyumweru cyose).

Muri ubwo buryo, birashoboka kwizera gutahura coronavirus ikiri ku kigero runaka cyo mu rugendo rwo kugaragaza ubwandu, niba koko yaramaze kugera mu mubiri w’umuntu.

Bimwe mu byiza by’ubu buryo bw’ibizamini, reka tuvuge nk’ikiguzi (igiciro) cyabwo kiri hasi kurushaho ndetse no kuba ibisubizo biboneka byihuse - nkuko n’izina ryamamaye ryabwo rya ’rapid test’ ribivuga - aho umuntu ashobora kumenya niba yaranduye Covid cyangwa atarayanduye mu gihe cy’iminota iri hagati ya 15 na 30.

Carolina Santos Lázari, inzobere mu gupima no kuvura indwara z’urusobe (agace k’ubuvuzi kazwi nka infectiology) wo mu kigo cy’ubuvuzi bwo gusuzuma indwara kitari icya leta ya Brazil cyitwa Fleury Group, agira ati:

"Ibizamini antigen bifite ubushobozi bwo gutanga ibisubizo mu gihe gito kurushaho, bitabaye ngombwa guhuza ibipimo byafashwe hamwe na za raporo. Bishobora kuba ingirakamaro cyane mu gihe hari abantu benshi bacyeneye gupimwa".

Madamu Lázari yongeraho ati: "Ibi bizamini bifasha cyane uburyo bwo gusuzuma bwo mu ntangiriro kandi bwihuse, bushobora kuba buhagaritseho gato imiyoboro y’ikwirakwira rya virusi mu bantu".

Iki kizamini na cyo gikorwa hifashishijwe akantu kameze nk’agati korohereye gashyirwa mu zuru no mu kanwa, kagafata ibipimo mu gisenge cy’akanwa no mu zuru.

Bitandukanye n’ikizamini cya RT-PCR, gishakisha niba hari uturemangingo ndangasano, ikizamini antigen cyo kiba gishakisha intungamubiri (protéine) N mu bipimo gifata.

Madamu Lázari avuga ko iyo "N" iva ku ijambo ’nucléocapside’ (nucleocapsid), kimwe mu bigize coronavirus mu miterere yayo.

Aho na ho, hari igihe cyiza cyo gufata ikizamini: kugira ngo ubone igisubizo kirushijeho kwizerwa, ikizamini kigomba gufatwa nyuma y’iminsi itatu umuntu agaragaje ibimenyetso.

"Icyo gihe cyo gutegereza ni cyo cyifuzwa kuko umurwayi ashobora kugira ingano ya virusi ifite intege nkeya mu minsi ya mbere, ibi bikaba bigabanya ubushobozi bwo kuyitahura bw’ikizamini antigen ndetse bikaba bishobora gutuma umuntu yibeshywaho ko nta yo yanduye", nkuko bivugwa na Alberto Chebabo, inzobere mu buryo indwara zanduramo.

Uwo muganga, unakuriye ibitaro Clementino Fraga Filho byo kuri Kaminuza Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, yongeraho ati: "Mu yandi magambo, niba umuntu akorewe ikizamini antigen kuva yakumva afite ibimenyetso bya mbere ubundi igisubizo kikagaragaza ko atanduye, ibyo ntibikuraho burundu ko nyuma yaho ashobora gusangwamo Covid".

Ibi bizamini bikwiye gukorwa ryari?
Urebye, hari ibihe bibiri aho ikizamini kiba gikwiye gukorwa ngo hamenyekane niba umuntu yaranduye Covid-19 cyangwa niba atarayanduye.

Ubwa mbere, ni igihe umuntu agaragaza kimwe cyangwa ibimenyetso byinshi bizwi ko ari iby’iyi ndwara, ushobora kubona kuri uru rutonde rukurikira:

Guhinda umuriro
Inkorora
Umunaniro
Gutakaza kumva icyanga cyangwa guhumurirwa no kunukirwa
Kubabara mu muhogo
Kurwara umutwe
Kubabara mu mubiri
Gucibwamo (kujya mu bwiherero bya hato na hato)
Kubabuka umubiri cyangwa mu maso
Ubwa kabiri, ni igihe umuntu yagize aho ahurira bya hafi n’undi muntu utekereza ko afite Covid cyangwa se basanze yaranduye Covid.

Bwana Chebabo ati: "Ibihugu bimwe binafite ingamba yo gutanga ibipimo nk’uburyo bwo gupima [gusuzuma], mu rwego rwo gutahura abarwayi batagaragaza ibimenyetso no kubashyira mu kato vuba, mbere yuko bakomeza gukwirakwiza virusi".

Ni iki wakora mbere na nyuma y’ikizamini?
Igihe ugaragaza ibimenyetso bizwiho kuba ari ibya Covid, ni byiza kwishyira mu kato, na mbere yo kwisuzumisha, cyangwa igihe udashoboye kwisuzumisha kubera ko uburyo bwo gupima ntabuhari.

Mu kwirinda kugira aho uhurira n’abandi bantu, uba ugabanyije ibyago byo gukwirakwiza iyi virusi no gutuma habaho imiyoboro mishya y’ubwandu mu bantu mukunda guhura.

Nyuma y’ikizamini, ibyo gukora nyuma yaho biterwa ahanini n’igisubizo uhawe.

Niba igisubizo ari ’négatif’ (kigaragaza ko utanduye Covid), birashoboka ko usubira mu bikorwa byawe bisanzwe, ukurikiza ingamba z’ibanze zo kwirinda zirimo nko kwambara agapfukamunwa, kwirinda kujya ahateraniye imbaga y’abantu ndetse no kwikingiza (niba utarasoza gufata doze ebyiri cyangwa eshatu z’urukingo).

Ariko, ntiwibagirwe buri gihe kongera kwisuzumisha, cyane cyane mu gihe igisubizo wahawe ari icy’ikizamini antigen, aho ibyago byuko igisubizo gishobora kugaragaza ko utanduye kandi waranduye (faux négatif/false negative) biba biri hejuru kurushaho.

Uko kwigengesera kugomba kongererwa imbaraga mu gihe ibimenyetso by’indwara zo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero bikomeje. Usibye ibyago by’igisubizo cyuko utanduye kandi nyamara waranduye, biranashoboka ko waba urwaye ibicurane - indi ndwara na yo ishobora gukara cyane.

Hamwe na hamwe, bishobora kuba ngombwa gusubiramo ikizamini iminsi micyeya nyuma yaho, hakurikijwe inama za muganga.

Ariko, mu gihe igisubizo cyawe ari ’positif’ (bivuze ko ufite Covid), ugomba gufata izindi ngamba zo kurinda ubuzima bwawe n’ubw’abakuri hafi.

Usibye kwishyira mu kato, ni ingenzi kurinda abakuba hafi, kugenzura ibimenyetso, kuruhuka, kurushaho kunywa amazi no kujya kwa muganga (ku bitaro) mu gihe ibimenyetso birushijeho gukara.

BBC

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