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Kuki amakuru ari kuri Wikipedia atari ayo kwizerwa yose ?

Kuki amakuru ari kuri Wikipedia  atari ayo kwizerwa yose ?

Wikipedia ni urubuga rwifashishwa na benshi mu kuvomaho ubumenyi, ishakiro rikoreshwa na benshi mu kazi, isoko yifashishwa n’abanyeshuri benshi mu masomo ya buri munsi. Ubunini bw’uru rubuga n’inkuru amamiliyoni aruriho byibazwaho na benshi ndetse n’abazandika abo aribo n’igihe bibatwara.

Muri iyi nkuru turagaruka ku mateka ya Wikipedia ndetse n’ibindi byose ushobora kuba wibaza kuri uru rubuga nkuko twabisabwe n’umukunzi wa rwandamagazine .com, wanatubajije impamvu bivugwa ko amakuru yose ari kuri uru rubuga atari ayo kwizerwa.

Ishingwa rya Wikipedia

Waba wirengagije byinshi uramutse uvuze ku nkomoko ya Wikipedia utavuze kuri kompanyi ya Bomis. Bomis yashinzwe na Tim Shell , Jimmy Wales na Michael Davis muri 1996. Yari kompanyi ikora ibigendanye n’ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa(Computer). Igice kinini cy’amafanga kompanyi ya Bomis yungukaga yaturukaga ku rubuga rwa Bomis.com bakunguka biturutse ku mwanya w’amatangazo yo kwamamaza wari uri kuri uru rubuga.

Bomis.com yatangiye ari urubuga ruvuga ahanini ku makuru yo muri Chicago. Nyuma abarushinze bakomeje kugenda bongeramo ingingo zinyuranye kugira ngo rurusheho gusurwa bityo abamamaza babe benshi ariko rumenyekana cyane ahagana mu mwaka wa 2000 ubwo rwari rumaze kugira umwihariko ku mafoto y’urukozasoni. ‘Bomis Babes’ bwari ububiko bw’amafoto y’urukozasoni (Images érotiques). The Babe Engine ryari ishakiro ryafashaga abasomyi gushakisha amafoto y’urukozasoni. Terry Foote ari ushinzwe kwamamaza kuri uru rubuga yaje gusanga abenshi mubarusuraga (99%)ari abishakiraga amafoto y’abagore bambaye ubusa.
Ku itariki 09 Werurwe 2000 nibwo Jimmy Wales yashinze encyclopedia(uburyo bwo gukomatanyiriza hamwe ubumenyi) ayita Nupedia, iterwa inkunga na Bomis, umwanditsi mukuru ari Lawrence Mark Sanger uzwi cyane ku izina rya Larry Sanger.

Nupedia.com yakoreraga ku mugongo wa internet , gusura no gusoma ubumenyi bwariho byakorwaga ku buntu. Nupedia yari iteye nka Wikipedia tuzi iki gihe ariko bitandukaniye ku nkuru zandikwagaho. Kuri Nupedia inkuru zandikwaga n’inzobere (Experts) .Muri Kanama 2000 abantu 60 nibo bafashaga Nupedia mu kwandika no gushyiraho inkuru abenshi bari bafite impamyabumenyi yo ku rwego rwa Dogitora(Doctorat) muri filozofiya(Philosophy) ndetse no mu buvuzi(Medecine). Abanyeshuri bo mu byiciro byo hasi bifuzaga kugira icyo bafasha Nupedia babanzaga kohereza amabaruwa akubiyemo ibyiciro by’ubumenyi bwabo bikabanza gusuzumwa . Kubera ubuke bw’abantu bayandikagaho, Nupedia yafunzwe burundu ku itariki 26 Nzeli 2003. Yafunze imiryango hariho inkuru 25 naho 74 zari zikiri gutunganywa.

Ishingwa rya Wikipedia ryatewe n’uburyo Nupedia yagendaga buhoro bitewe n’inkuru nkeya zayandikwagaho. Larry Sanger wari umwanditsi mukuru yazanye igitekerezo cy’uko bakora ikindi gice cy’urubuga(Wiki) aho byari kuba byoroshye ko buri muntu yakwandikaho inkuru, ikavugururwa iriho(edited) ,icyo gice kigakomeza gukora gifasha Nupedia kuba yabona inkuru nshya kandi nyinshi ziyishyirwaho byaba ngombwa kikaba cyakongerwa muri Nupedia yari igikora icyo gihe. Tariki 15 Mutarama 2001 niyo tariki y’amateka, urubuga rwifashishwa na benshi ku isi , Wikipedia rwafunguwe ku mugaragaro.

Larry Sanger wari umwanditsi mukuru wa Nupedia ndetse akaba ariwe wazanye igitekerezo cyo gukoresha uburyo bwa ’Wiki’,aho buri muntu yari kubasha gushyira, guhindura inkuru kuri Wikipedia

Iyo hatabaho kompanyi ya Bomis n’urubuga rwayo Bomis.com, na Wikipedia tuzi uyu munsi ntiyari kubaho. Kugira ngo Wikipedia itangire gukorera kuri internet , Bomis yabigizemo uruhare rukomeye ndetse bamwe mu bakozi ba Bomis bakoze mu mirimo y’itangizwa rya Wikipedia cyane cyane Tim Shell, washinze akaba n’umuyobozi wa Bomis, ndetse na Jason Richey wari umuhanga kuri mudasobwa(Programmeur/Programmer). Amafaranga Jimmy Wales yifashishije mu gushinga Wikipedia agera kuri bihumbi ijana by’amadorali($100,000) yayakuye mu mutungo wa kompanyi ya Bomis.

Ku itariki 12 Gashyantare 2001 ,Wikipedia yari imaze gushyirwaho inkuru 1 000 , ku itariki 7 Nzeli muri uwo mwaka zari zimaze kuba 10 000. Ku itariki 23 Werurwe 2001 nibwo Wikipedia iri mu rurimi rw’igifaransa yashyizweho nyuma n’izindi ndimi zinyuranye zigenda zongerwamo. Mu mpera za 2001, Wikipedia yari imaze kugerwaho n’inkuru 20.000 mu ndimi 18 zinyuranye. Ku itariki 30 Kanama 2002, uru rubuga rwari rumaze kugeraho inkuru 40 000 .

Muri Gashyantare 2002 Larry Sanger yakuwe na Bomis ku mirimo y’umwanditsi mukuru, bituma na we ahita asezera mu mishinga ya Nupedia ndetse nyuma ava muri Wikipedia. Tariki 16 Nzeli 2006 nibwo na we yashinze urubuga rujya kumera nka Nupedia arwita Citizendium.

Mu kwezi kwa Kanama 2002 nibwo Jimmy Wales yatangaje ko atazigera ashyiraho umwanya w’amatangazo(publicités )kuri Wikipédia, bityo urubuga rwa Wikipedia ruhindurirwa izina ruva kuri wikipedia.com ruhindurwa wikipedia.org. Tariki 15 Ukwakira 2003 nibwo ikirango cya Wikipedia cyashyizweho .

Ninde wanditse inkuru amamiliyoni ziri kuri Wikipedia?

Iki ni ikibazo buri muntu ugitangira gukoresha Wikipedia yibaza. Ubunini bwayo n’amakuru ayiriho bitera benshi kwibaza mubyukuri ababyandika n’igihe bibatwara. Iki kibazo cy’amatsiko gifite ishingiro kuko imibare yatanzwe na The New York Times muri Kamena 2013, yavugaga ko kugeza icyo gihe Wikipedia yabarirwaho inkuru zigera kuri miliyoni 24 zari mu ndimi zigera kuri 285. Uru rubuga kandi rwazaga ku mwanya wa 5 mu mbuga zasurwaga cyane ku isi nzima , inyuma ya Google, Yahoo, Microsoft na Facebook . Muri Nyakanga 2014, ikinyamakuru Daily Mail cyatangaje ko izi nkuru zari zimaze kuba miliyoni 30 ziri mu ndimi 287.

Inshuro nyinshi yagiye abazwa n’ibinyamakuru bitandukanye, kuwaba yandika inkuru za Wikipedia, Jimmy Wales wayishinze yakunze gusubiza ko Wikipedia yandikwa n’umuryango w’abantu b’abakorerabushake bo mu mpande z’isi yose(The Community).

Kuva ishingwa kugeza nubu, Wikipedia yashinzwe nk’ikusanyirizo ry’ubumenyi, Encyclopedia(Soma ansikoropediya) bugizwemo uruhare na buri wese ubishaka. Buri muntu wese aho ava akagera ashobora kwandika inkuru kuri Wikipedia, guhindura ibyanditsweho mu gihe asanze harimo ikosa cyangwa hari ubundi bumenyi yakongeramo. Kugira ngo wandike inkuru kuri uru rubuga bisaba kuba ufite mudasobwa ifite internet, uzi inzira zo kunyuramo ngo wandike inkuru(iyo utabizi ukurikiza amabwiriza aba ari kuri uru rubuga), ufite ingingo (Subject) ifatika kuburyo yajya muri Encyclopedia nka Wikipedia kandi itaranditsweho n’abandi.

Jimmy Wales washinze Wikipedia

Ikindi iyi ngingo igomba kuba ifite ireme kuburyo nibura hari uwo yatera amatsiko akayisoma ,icya nyuma igomba kuba ifite aho ikomoka (Source) haba ku rubuga runaka rwo ku murongo wa internet cyangwa mu bitabo kuko ibyo umuntu akuye mu mutwe bitemerwa. Umuntu wese yabasha guhindura inkuru yanditswe kuri Wikipedia(edit/modifier) ariko kuyandikaho bisaba kubanza gufunguraho konti(Create account). Iyo uramutse ugize icyo uhindura ku nkuru runaka utariyandikisha kuri Wikipedia, umwirondoro w’imashini yawe (IP Address)ugaragara ku karubanda(Public) kuburyo buri muntu yabasha kumenya aho wayanditse uherereye . Umuntu wese ugira uruhare mu kwandika inkuru kuri Wikipedia ahabwa izina rya Wikipedian ndetse iri jambo ryashyizwe mu nkoranyamagambo ya Oxford mu kwezi kwa Kanama 2012.

Ikinyamakuru The New York Times mu nyandiko yacyo yo muri Kamena 2013 cyahaye umutwe ugira uti’ Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionaire’ cyatangaje ko kugeza icyo gihe nibura 80,000 aribo bakorerabushake bakosoraga inkuru kuri Wikipedia aribo bitirirwa izina rya The Community. Muri 2012, BBC yo yari yatangaje ko abagize iyi community bari 85,000 gusa iyi mibare ikaba igenda ihindagurika uko iminsi yicuma.

Mu kwezi k’Ugushyingo 2011 habarwaga konti miliyoni 31,7 z’abantu bari bamaze kwiyandikisha kuri Wikipedia mu ndimi zinyuranye inkuru z’uru rubuga zandikwamo. Konti (accounts) 270,000 nizo zakoraga icyo gihe buri kwezi naho abakosora inkuru 31,000 nibo bari bari gukora ku rubuga rwa Wikipedia. Nubwo ari bake ariko aba bakomeza kongera umubare n’ireme z’inkuru ziri kuri Wikipedia. Mu nyandiko ye, Army Chozick ukorera The New York Times yibazaga impamvu urubuga rwa Wikipedia rwagiye rugira abakorerabushake benshi barimo n’inzobere bene aka kageni .

Muri 2005 Andrea Forte na Amy Bruckman, bakoze nabo ubushakashatsi bibaza iki kibazo mu nyandiko bise’ Why Do People Write for Wikipedia?’. Muri ubu bushakashatsi bwabo, basanze ko nibura buri muntu 1 ukosora inkuru kuri Wikipedia(Editor), nibura amara isaha imwe ku munsi akosora inkuru ndetse kimwe cya gatanu bakamara nibura amasaha 3 ngo bakunde bamenyekane muri Community ya Wikipedia twagarutseho hejuru. Izindi mpamvu zinyuraranye basanze zituma abantu bitanga bakandikira Wikipedia, harimo ubumuntu bwo gufasha abandi, kongera ubumenyi , kugaragariza ubumenyi abandi, kubyishimira, n’izindi .

Sverker Johansson yandika inkuru 10,000 ku munsi

Nubwo twabonye ko abantu benshi bagira uruhare mu kwandika inkuru kuri Wikipedia, Sverker Johansson kugeza ubu wenyine amaze kwandika 8.5% by’inkuru zose ziri kuri Wikipedia. Mu kwezi kwa Nyakanga 2014 yari amaze kwandika inkuru miliyoni 2.7 mu gihe kingana n’imyaka 7. Ni ukuvuga ko Sverker ukomoka muri Swede yandika nibura inkuru 10,000 ku munsi. Wakwibwira uti uyu muvuduko nta kiremwa muntu ku isi kiwufite kuburyo cyashobora aka kazi. Ibyo ni ukuri, kugira ngo Sverker abigereho yifashisha imashini yise Lsjbot. Nkuko byatangajwe n’ikinyamakuru Wall Street Journal, iyi mashini ni Programu ya mudasobwa(computer generated software algorithm) uyu mugabo yakoze ikusanya amakuru ikuye kuri internet ikayarundanya igakuramo inkuru zo kwandika kuri Wikipedia.

Bitatu bya kane by’inkuru ze, Sverker azishyira ku gice cya Wikipedia yo mu rurimi rukoreshwa muri Swede(Swedish) izindi zisigaye akazandika mu rurimi rwa Filipino , ikirimi gikoreshwa mu gace gakomokamo umugore we. Ikinyamakuru Daily Mail mu nyandiko yacyo cyahaye umutwe ugira uti ’ Is this the world’s most prolific writer? Meet the Swedish physicist who has written 8.5% of everything on Wikipedia’ , cyagarutse kuri uyu mugabo ufite impamyabumenyi zitandukanye mu ndimi(linguistics), ubwubatsi(civil engineering), ubukungu(economics) ndetse no mu bugenge(physics) , akaba akorera kaminuza yo muri Swede yitwa Dalarna University. Iyi mashini ya Sverker ibasha gukusanya amakuru ikuye kuri internet ku ngingo runaka, ikaba yahita iyahinamo inkuru ngufi yo gushyirwa kuri Wikipedia. Kugeza ubu uyu mugabo akaba amaze nibura kugira inyandiko kuri buri bwoko bw’inyoni bubaho ku isi .

Iyi ni imwe muro ’bot’ ikora nk’umuntu yandika inkuru kuri Wikipedia. Mu nkuru ya Daily Mail igira iti’ The ’human-like’ bots that have been arguing on Wikipedia for TEN years’, ya tariki 27 Gashyantare 2017, iki kinyamakuru cyatangaje ko Wikipedia yo mu rurimi rwo muri Portugal ariyo ikunda kwandikwaho na bots nkizi

Nyuma yo kumenya ko hari inkuru zo kuri Wikipedia zitandikwa n’abantu, abandikira Wikipedia(Authors) kuva mu myaka yashize, ngo iyi nkuru yarababaje cyane ndetse si bose bashyigikira ubu buryo bukoreshwa na Sverker. Nubwo uyu mugabo yibanda ku rurimi rwo muri Swede, hagiye havugwa ko hashobora no kuba hari imashini nk’izi zikoreshwa kuri Wikipedia yo mu rurimi rw’icyongereza.

Kuki bamwe mu bantu batizera amakuru aba ari kuri Wikipedia?

Abantu benshi mu nzego zinyuranye bakunda kwifashisha Wikipedia. Abanyeshuri akenshi nibo ahanini bakoresha uru rubuga haba kuvomaho ubumenyi cyangwa bakayifashisha bitegura kwandika ibitabo cyangwa mu masomo yabo ya buri munsi.
Ubushakashatsi bwakoze na Journal of the American Osteopathic Association butangazwa muri Gicurasi 2014 n’ikinyamakuru Pourqouidocteur mu nyandiko yacyo’ Wikipédia n’est pas une source fiable dans le domaine de la santé’, bwagaragaje ko nubwo hagati ya 47 na 70% by’abaganga n’abanyeshuri bakunda kwifashisha Wikipedia ariko ngo 9 mu ndwara 10 zikomeye ziri kuri Wikipedia mu rurimi rw’icyongereza zakozweho ubushakashatsi ngo byagaragaye ko zirimo amakosa kandi akomeye.

Dr Robert Hasty wo muri Kaminuza ya Campbell iherereye muri Caroline y’Amajyaruguru muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ari na we wayoboye ubu bushakashatsi yatangaje ko ikibazo ari uko buri muntu wese ashobora guhindura amakuru ari kuri Wikipedia bityo akaba asanga nubwo uru rubuga rufite akamaro ariko rudakwiriye kuba urwo kugenderwaho n’abantu b’abanyamwuga (référence pour les professionnels). Kuri we ngo rwita ku mubare munini w’inkuru aho kwita ku ireme ryazo.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe na kaminuza yo muri Canada ya Laval bugatangarizwa mu kinyamakuru Journal of Medical Internet, bwagaragaje ko mu nyigo 25 zakozwe kuri Wikipedia hagamijwe kureba niba amakuru ariho ari ayo kwizerwa, 44 % by’amakuru y’ubuzima ariho ari ukuri ariko ko akeneye kongerwamo bimwe, naho 28% by’inkuru z’ubuzima ziri kuri Wikipedia basanga zidakwiriye gukoreshwa na gato.

Ni gute Wikipedia yunguka mu gihe itanyuzaho amatangazo yamamaza?

Muri 2013, The New york Times yatangaje ko iyo Wikipedia iramuka ikoresheje uburyo bwo kunyuzaho amatangazo yamamaza (banner and video ads) yari kuba ifite agaciro ka miliyari 5 z’amadorali. Wikipedia Foundation ari nayo nyiri uru rubuga yatangaje ko ingengo y’imari yayo mu mwaka wa 2014-2015 ari miliyoni 58 z’Amadorali ya Amerika ,hiyogereyeho miliyoni 8.2 zo gukoreshwa mu bindi harimo kwagura Community ndetse n’ireme ry’inkuru zayo. Aya mafaranga yose uyahinduye mu manyarwanda usanga ari Miliyari 48 zisaga . Wakwibaza uti ese aya mafaranga yose ava he?Akoreshwa iki niba inkuru zandikwa n’abakorerabushake?

Wikipedia yashyizeho umwanya wo kunyuzaho inkunga ya buri wese ushaka kuyifasha gukomeza gutera imbere

Urubuga rwose kugira ngo rukomeze gukora rukenera ibintu byinshi harimo guhemba abakozi baba abakora ibigendanye na Tekiniki n’indi mirimo , kwishyura seriveri (server costs),amafaranga ahembwa ubuyobozi (administration and staff costs) n’ibindi. Urubuga nka Wikipedia ruri muri 5 zisurwa cyane ku isi rwo rusabwa amafaranga atagira ingano kugira ngo rubashe gukomeza imirimo yarwo harimo nko kurukora rukagendana n’igihe tugezemo, kongeramo izindi ndimi, gukora application za telefoni n’ibindi. Nubwo itamamaza ngo iboneho amafaranga, iyo usuye Wikipedia, ubona ahantu handitse ko watanga inkunga(donation). Izi nkunga Wikipedia izakira mu buryo bwose bwashoboka ko umuntu yohereza amafaranga:Haba gukoresha credit card cyangwa PayPal, kohereza sheki kuri email(mailed checks),… Uretse izi nkunga, Wikipedia ibona binyuze ku buryo bwa online, hari n’andi mafaranga ibona binyuze mu baterankunga ifite ku ruhande ndetse n’abandi ifitanye nabo ubufatanye(Partnerships).

Nubwo uru rubuga rufunguriye gukoreshwa na buri muntu akabasha gusoma amakuru aruriho ku buntu, Wikipedia yakunze gufungwa na bimwe mu bihugu binyuranye ku mpamvu zitakundaga gusobanurwa ariko ahanini ari impamvu za Politiki. Wikipedia yakunze guhagarikwa cyane mu gihugu cy’Ubushinwa. Wikipedia kandi yigeze guhagarikwa muri Iran no muri Tunisia.

Ibi ni bimwe wamenya kuri Wikipedia.Igitekerezo cyawe cyangwa inyunganizi turabyakira, shyira ubutumwa bwawe ahabugenewe. Indi nkuru wifuza ko twazagarukaho ubutaha watwandikira kuri info@rwandamagazine.com

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

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