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Coronavirus yaba yarakorewe muri ‘laboratoire’?

Coronavirus yaba yarakorewe muri ‘laboratoire’?

Amakuru y’ibanga yo mu biro by’ububanyi n’amahanga by’Amerika agaragaza ko abakozi b’ambasade yayo i Beijing mu Bushinwa bari bafite impungenge ku mutekano ku binyabuzima kubera ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi (’laboratoire’) kuri virusi cyo mu mujyi wa Wuhan mu Bushinwa.

Iyo ’laboratoire’ iri mu mujyi umwe n’aho ubu bwoko bushya bwa coronavirus bwagaragariye bwa mbere ku isi.

Na Perezida Donald Trump yavuze ko leta y’Amerika iri kwiga ku makuru ataragenzuwe yuko iyo virusi yatorotse iva muri ’laboratoire’.

None ni iki niba hari n’igihari - ibi byongera ku myumvire yacu kuri iki cyorezo cyugarije isi kuri ubu ?

Amakuru y’ibanga avuga iki?

Ikinyamakuru The Washington Post cyo muri Amerika cyatangaje amakuru gicyesha amakuru y’ibanga yo mu rwego rw’ububanyi n’amahanga.

Agaragaza ko mu mwaka wa 2018, abadiplomate b’Amerika bo mu rwego rw’ubumenyi bwa siyansi bakomeje koherezwa gusura ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cyo mu Bushinwa.

Abo bategetsi baburiye Amerika mu butumwa bubiri bohereje, bavuga ko hari umutekano udakwiye kuri icyo kigo cy’ubushakashatsi.

Iyo nkuru ya The Washington Post ivuga ko abo badiplomate bari bafite impungenge ku mutekano no kuburyo bwo gucunga ahafite intege nke kuri icyo kigo cya Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).

Nuko basaba ko hatangwa ubundi bufasha kuri icyo kigo.

Iyo nkuru inavuga ko abo badiplomate bari bahangayicyishijwe n’ubu bushakashatsi bw’icyo kigo kuri coronavirus yibasira uducurama.

Bavugaga ko ubwo bushakashatsi bushobora guteza ibyago by’icyorezo cyo ku rwego ry’icyiswe Sars cyo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero cyabayeho kuva mu 2002 kugera mu 2004.

Ikinyamakuru The Washington Post kivuga ko ayo makuru y’ibanga yatije umurindi impaka za vuba aha ziri kugibwa muri leta y’Amerika.

Hari kwibazwa niba ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi kuri virusi cy’i Wuhan kizwi nka WIV cyangwa ikindi cyaho, cyaba cyarabaye intandaro ya virusi yateje iki cyorezo cyugarije isi.

Ikindi cyiyongera kuri ibyo, televiziyo Fox News yo muri Amerika nayo yatangaje inkuru ivuga ko iyi virusi yakomotse muri ’laboratoire’.

Iki cyorezo cya coronavirus cyagaragaye mu mpera y’umwaka ushize ubwo abanduye ba mbere byavugwaga ko bifitanye isano n’isoko ry’ibiribwa ryo mu mujyi wa Wuhan.

Ariko nubwo hari byinshi byakomeje guhwihwiswa cyane ku mbuga za internet, nta gihamya ihari na busa yuko iyi virusi yo mu bwoko bwa Sars-CoV-2 (itera indwara ya Covid-19 yo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero) yavuye - by’impanuka - muri ’laboratoire’.

’Laboratoires’ zigira ingamba bwoko ki z’umutekano?

’Laboratoires’ zikora ubushakashatsi kuri za virusi no ku dukoko twa ’bactéries’ zikurikiza uburyo bwo kwirinda buzwi nka BSL, bivuze ’Biosafety Level’, cyangwa ikigero cy’umutekano ku binyabuzima.

Hari ibyiciro bine bya BSL, biterwa n’ubwoko bw’ibinyabuzima biri gukorwaho ubushakashatsi ndetse n’ingamba zo kubihamisha hamwe ngo bibe mu kato.

Icyiciro cya mbere (BSL-1) ni cyo cyo hasi cyane, kikaba gikoreshwa muri za ’laboratoires’ ziga ku binyabuzima bidateje ibyago ku bantu.

Laboratwari nk’iyi yo muri Hungary zifashisha uburyo busanze bw’inzego enye

Uburyo bw’ingamba zo gukumira ko hari ibyago byabaho bugenda bwiyongera kugeza ku cyiciro cya kane (BSL-4) ari nacyo cyo hejuru cyane hashoboka.

Icyo cyiciro cyo hejuru cyane cyahariwe za ’laboratoires’ zikorerwamo ubushakashatsi ku binyabuzima byateza akaga gakomeye kandi bikaba bifite inkingo ncye cyangwa imiti micye.

Izo ’laboratoires’ ni nk’iziga kuri Ebola, virusi ya Marburg ndetse - ku bijyanye n’ibigo bibiri gusa kimwe kiri muri Amerika ikindi kikaba mu Burusiya - no ku ndwara ya smallpox.

Ibyiciro bya BSL bikoreshwa ku isi hose, ariko buri gihugu kikagira bimwe gihinduraho.

Dr Filippa Lentzos, inzobere mu mutekano ku binyabuzima wo kuri Kaminuza ya King’s College London yo mu Bwongereza, yagize ati:

"Ntanze nk’urugero, ku Barusiya, bo ikigero cyo hejuru cyane cyo gukumira ingaruka zaterwa n’ibikorerwa muri za ’laboratoires’ kiba ari icya 1 naho icyo hasi cyane kikaba ari icya 4, ibintu bitandukanye cyane n’uko ubusanzwe ibyo byiciro biba bipanze muri rusange".

"Ariko ibikorwa mu by’ukuri ndetse n’ibikoresho byifashishwa biba ari bimwe".

Ariko nubwo ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku buzima (OMS/WHO) ryatangaje inyandiko ikubiyemo ibyo byiciro bitandukanye by’umutekano, nta masezerano ariho ajyanye n’ikurikizwa ryabyo.

Dr Lentzos agira ati: "Byashyiriweho kugira ngo bikoreshwe neza kubw’umutekano mu mikorere, ku bakora muri ’laboratoire’ baba badashaka kwanduzwa n’ibyo bari gukoraho ubushakashatsi cyangwa kuri rubanda, no ku bidukikije hirindwa ko hari ibikorwaho ubushakashatsi byasohoka by’impanuka".

Madamu Lentzos yongeyeho ati: "Biterwa n’amikoro y’abakora ubushakashatsi. Niba ushaka gukorana imishinga n’abandi bo mu mahanga, basaba ko za ’laboratoires’ ziba ziri ku rwego runaka rw’imikorere".

"Cyangwa niba hari ibyo mukora bizagurishwa ku isoko, cyangwa hari ibindi bimwe byo gukora, nk’urugero amagerageza, icyo gihe unasabwa gukorera ku bipimo mpuzamahanga".

Abatangiye kwandura basanze bafite aho bahuriye n’isoko ry’ibiva mu mazi rya Wuhan

Ni ko bimeze rwose, ndetse n’ikigo WIV cy’i Wuhan cyari cyaratewe inkunga n’Amerika muri ubwo bushakashatsi, ndetse n’indi ivuye mu bigo by’ubushakashatsi byo muri Amerika.

Ayo makuru y’ibanga y’ibiro by’ububanyi n’amahanga by’Amerika yanasabaga ko icyo kigo cyanahabwa n’ubundi bufasha.

Ni ibihe bibazo by’imikorere mibi mu bijyanye n’umutekano bivugwa muri ayo makuru y’ibanga?

Igisubizo cyoroshye kuri icyo kibazo, ni uko tutabizi, dushingiye ku makuru yatangajwe n’ikinyamakuru The Washington Post.

Ariko, tuvuze muri rusange, hari uburyo bwinshi ingamba z’umutekano zishobora kurengwaho muri za ’laboratoires’ zikora ubushakashatsi ku binyabuzima.

Nkuko Dr Lentzos abivuga, ubwo buryo burimo nko kumenya: "Ni nde werewe kwinjira muri ’laboratoire’, amahugurwa, amahugurwa yo kongera gutyaza ubumenyi ku bahanga muri siyansi n’abatekinisiye, uburyo bwo kubika amakuru, uburyo bwo kugaragaza impanuka,…"

Ariko se hari ikidasanzwe mu mpungenge zagaragajwe muri ayo makuru y’ibanga ya leta y’Amerika?

Impanuka zijya zibaho. Mu mwaka wa 2014, ibiharuri birimo smallpox byibagiwe, byasanzwe mu gikarito mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi kiri hafi y’umujyi wa Washington.

Mu mwaka wa 2015, igisirikare cy’Amerika, by’impanuka, cyatwaye udukoko twa ’anthrax’ tuzima aho gutwara utwapfuye, kitujyana muri za ’laboratoires’ icyenda mu gihugu ndetse no ku kigo cya gisirikare kiri muri Koreya y’epfo.

Hagiye hariho ibinyuranyo mu ngamba z’ubwirinzi muri za ’laboratoires’ ku cyiciro cyo hasi cy’umutekano ndetse uburyo bwinshi bwo hasi cyane burenga kuri izo ngamba ntabwo bujya butangazwa mu makuru.

Ariko muri rusange hariho za ’laboratoires’ ncye zo mu cyiciro cya BSL-4. Urubuga rwa internet rwa Wikipedia rutangaza izirenga 50 zo muri icyo cyiciro ziriho ku isi.

Muri izo harimo n’ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi kuri virusi cya WIV cy’i Wuhan, ariko nta rutonde ntakuka ruriho rw’izo ’laboratoires’ zo muri icyo cyiciro.

Ziba zigomba kubakwa hagendewe ku mabwiriza yo ku rwego rwo hejuru cyane kuko zikorerwamo ubushakashatsi ku binyabuzima bya mbere byateza akaga gakomeye cyane bizwi kugeza ubu muri siyansi.

Kubera iyo mpamvu, muri rusange izo ’laboratoires’ zikunze kwitwara neza ku bijyanye n’umutekano.

Rero impungenge iyo ari yo yose ku mikorere ya ’laboratoire’ yo muri icyo cyiciro, iba igomba kwitonderwa birenze ibisanzwe.

Mbere yaho nta yandi makuru yari yaravuzwe yuko virusi yavuye muri ’laboratoire’ by’impanuka?

Yego, yari ahari.

Hafi nk’ako kanya nyuma yaho ubu bwoko bushya bwa coronavirus bumenyekaniye, habayeho guhwihwisa - kwinshi muri ko kudafite ishingiro - ku bijyanye n’inkomoko zayo.

Imwe mu mitekerereze yatangajwe ku mbuga za internet, igasakara cyane mu kwezi kwa mbere, yavugaga ko iyo virusi yaba yarakorewe muri ’laboratoire’ nk’intwaro ishingiye ku binyabuzima yo kwifashisha mu ntambara.

Ibyo byavugwaga ariko byakomeje kwamaganwa n’abahanga muri siyansi, bavuga ko ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko iyo virusi yaturutse ku nyamaswa - bikaba bishoboka cyane ko yanavuye ku ducurama.

Virusi zishobora no gukorwa ku mpamvu zijyanye n’ubushakashatsi ahanini.

Nk’urugero, ubushakashatsi bugamije kongerera udukoko ubushobozi bwo gutera indwara, bushobora gufasha mu gusobanukirwa ubushobozi bwatwo mu gutera indwara.

Ndetse bukaba bwafasha no mu gusobanukirwa uko utwo dukoko dushobora kuzahinduka cyangwa tugahindura imyitwarire mu gihe kiri imbere.

Ariko ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri Amerika ku miterere ya coronavirus bwatangajwe mu kwezi gushize kwa gatatu, bwasanze nta kimenyetso gihari cyuko ari inkorano.

Icyo gihe, Kristian Andersen, umwe mu bakoze ubwo bushakashatsi wo mu kigo Scripps Research, yagize ati:

"Mu kugereranya amakuru ariho ajyanye n’imiterere y’ubwoko [bundi] bwa coronavirus zizwi, dushobora kwemeza nta shiti ko SARS-CoV-2 yaturutse mu buryo busanzwe [karemano]".

Ibindi bivugwa, bijyanye n’uko by’impanuka virusi isanzwe yaba yaraturutse muri ’laboratoire’.

Guturana kw’isoko ricuruza ibikomoka mu mazi ry’i Wuhan - umujyi iyo virusi yagaragayemo bwa mbere - n’ibigo bigera kuri bibiri by’ubushakashatsi ku ndwara zandura, byenyegeje uko guhwihwisa ko haba hari isano.

Kuba ikigo cya WIV cyari cyarakoze ubushakashatsi kuri coronavirus yo mu ducurama, ni ibintu bizwi neza. Ubwo bushakashatsi bwakurikije amategeko ndetse butangazwa mu binyamakuru mpuzamahanga by’ubushakashatsi.

Bitewe n’ibihe iki gihugu cy’Ubushinwa cyanyuzemo mu gihe cy’icyorezo cya Sars mu ntangiriro y’imyaka ya 2000, kuba ubwo bushakashatsi bwarakozwe ntibyagakwiye kugira uwo bitangaza.

Dr Lentzos yavuze ko ikibazo kijyanye n’aho yakomotse ari "ikibazo gikomeye cyane".

Yongeyeho ko "habayeho kujya impaka bucece, nta wubizi…mu nzobere ku mutekano w’ibinyabuzima, zigaragaza kudashira amakenga ibivugwa cyane n’Ubushinwa ko iyo virusi yavuye mu isoko ricuruza ibikomoka mu mazi".

Ariko kugeza ubu nta gihamya ihari yuko ubushakashatsi ubwo ari bwo bwose bw’i Wuhan ari bwo bwabaye intandaro y’ubu bwoko bushya bwa coronavirus bwiswe Sars-CoV-2.

Ku munsi w’ejo ku wa kane, Zhao Lijian, umuvugizi wa minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga y’Ubushinwa, yabivuzeho mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru.

Yabwiye abanyamakuru ko abategetsi bo muri OMS "bavuze inshuro nyinshi ko nta gihamya ihari yuko ubu bwoko bushya bwa coronavirus bwakorewe muri ’laboratoire’".

Perezida Donald Trump, umaze igihe anengwa kuburyo ubutegetsi bwe bwitwara mu guhangana n’iki cyorezo, yavuze ko leta y’Amerika iri gukora iperereza ku bivugwa ko coronavirus yakorewe muri ’laboratoire’.

Ubushinwa bwakomeje gushinjwa kudakorera mu mucyo mu bihe byo mu ntangiriro y’iki cyorezo.

Ndetse Mike Pompeo, umunyamabanga wa leta y’Amerika, yavuze ko Ubushinwa "bugomba kuvugisha ukuri kose" ku byo buzi kuri iki cyorezo.

Mu gihe iyi ntambara yo guterana amagambo ikomeje hagati y’ibi bihugu byombi, akazi k’abahanga muri siyansi gasaba ubushishozi - ahanini katanagaragarira amaso - ko kazakomeza ngo hamenyekane inkomoko y’iyi virusi.

BBC

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