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Ibyo wamenya ku kinyabiziga Nasa imaze kohereza kuri Mars

Ibyo wamenya ku kinyabiziga Nasa imaze kohereza kuri Mars

Ishusho y’imiterere y’ikinyabiziga kigiye kuri Mars

Perseverance, ni imashini igenda ku butaka yoherejwe ku mubumbe wa Mars uyu munsi kuwa kane ijyanywe n’icyogajuru Atlas 5 cyahagurukiye ku kigo cyabugenewe kitwa Cape Canaveral muri Florida, USA.

Ubu nibwo butumwa bwa mbere bw’ikigo National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa) bwoherejwe kuri Mars gushaka gusa ibimenyetso by’ubuzima kuri uyu mubumbe w’umutuku.

Abahanga bavuga ko mu myaka miliyari ya mbere kuri uyu mubumbe hahoze amazi, ikintu cy’ibanze gitumye ku isi yacu hari ubuzima.

Niba kuri Mars harabaye ibinyabuzima, ibimenyetso bishobora kugaragara mu bitare biri mu mukoki munini cyane wiswe Jezero, byemejwe ko wahoze ari ikiyaga mu myaka miliyari 3.5 ishize, cyangwa irenze.

Perseverance ariko inoherejwe gukora umwuka iwuvanye muri ’carbon dioxide’ mu kirere cya Mars - irindi suzuma rishobora guhindura ubushakashatsi bw’abantu kuri uyu mubumbe.

Perseverance kandi izagurutsa ’drone’ iteye nka kajugujugu iziritse kunda yayo.

Abahanga barashaka no kugerageza kugurutsa ikintu kuri uyu mubumbe.

Gusa iyo ’drone’ ipima 1.8kg abahanga bavuga ko kuguruka bitazayorohera ikirere cyo kuri Mars cyorohereye (kitarimo hydrogen) inshuro zirenga 100 icyo ku isi.

Ubu ni ubutumwa bwa mbere nanone bwagutse bugamije kuzana hano ku isi amabuye n’ubutaka bwo kuri Mars.

Ese hari amahirwe y’ubuzima kuri Mars ?

Abahanga muri siyansi bakomeza gushakisha ibimenyetso byerekana ko ubuzima kuri Mars bushoboka, kuko byahindura imibereho y’abantu bo ku isi mu gihe kizaza.

Ibimaze kwemezwa neza ni ibimenyetso byerekana ko hahozeyo amazi, hari byinshi bigikenewe kumenywa, hari ubutumwa bwinshi bugamije ibyo, ubushakashatsi burakomeje.

Prof Caroline Smith wo mu kigo Natural History Museum i London yabwiye BBC ari "Ntibikwiye na rimwe kuvuga ngo ntibishoboka."

Mbere y’imyaka y’ibyogajuru na za ’robots’, abahanga muri siyansi n’abanditsi bavugaga ko Mars ishobora kuba ari ahantu hari ubuzima bw’ubwenge budasanzwe n’imibereho iteye imbere cyane.

Gusa mu 1965 ubwo icyogajuru Mariner 4 cy’Abanyamerika cyagurukaga hafi ya Mars cyazanye amafoto y’ahantu h’ibitare byumagaye, hagaragara nk’ahatari ubuzima na busa.

Mu 1975 ibyogajuru bibiri bya Nasa byitwa Viking byageze kuri Mars bibona ibimenyetso bya za mikorobe (utunyabuzima dutoya cyane) ku butaka bwa Mars.

Ibi byose ariko biracyatera ibibazo byinshi bituma abahanga bakomeje koherezayo imashini ziteye imbere kurushaho gushakisha birenzeho, nk’iyi Perseverance.

Izagerayo ryari ?

Icyogajuru cyahagurutse uyu munsi kijyanye iki kinyabiziga kiragenda mu nzira isanzwe iganayo aho kigenda gita ibice uko kigera kure cyane, kugeza kijugunye iki kinyabiziga - kiri mu mutwe w’icyogajuru - mu kirere cya Mars.

Umutwe w’icyogajuru gitwaye iki kinyabiziga uzagera aho ugenda ku muvuduko wa 41,000km/h, biteganyijwe ko uzagera mu kirere cya Mars tariki 18 z’ukwezi kwa kabiri umwaka utaha wa 2021.

Nasa ivuga ko bizaba ari saa mbiri z’ijoro ku isaha ngengamasaha.

Kumenya Mars bizafasha kumenya isi

Jennifer Trosper, wungirije ukuriye umushinga wa Perseverance, asobanura ko iki kinyabiziga gikurikiye ibindi byagiyeyo mu myaka ishize, kurushaho gucukumbura by’umwihariko k’ubuzima.

Kuva ku kitwa Soujourner cyagiyeyo mu 1997 kikagenda metero 120 gusa kuri uyu mubumbe, kugera kuri Curiosity cyo mu 2012, cyo cyari kinafite ubundi buhanga bwo gupimirayo ibyo gifashe, abahanga barakomeza kugerageza kumva uyu mubumbe kurushaho.

Madamu Trosper ati: "Kumenya ibyabaye kuri Mars bizadufasha kumva kurushaho kumenya ibiba ku mibumbe igaragiye izuba no kumenya ibyo ku isi".

Icyogajuru cyahagurukanye Perseverance

Cyahagurutse ku gicamunsi cyo kuri uyu wa kane ku masaha yo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari

BBC

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